Greek Adjectives

Greek adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case. In other words, the ending of the adjective changes depending on the noun it describes. As nouns can be one of three genders, adjectives also change ending according to the noun gender. The vocative and genitive cases are also used but not declined here.

Greek adjectives are grouped into different declensions according to their endings. The adjective class here with endings ος, -η, -ο is the most frequently used.

Adjectives. Consonant stems

The commonest type of adjective with consonant stems have the endings ος, -η, -ο (masculine, feminine and neuter). Some common examples are :-

first πρώτος, -η, -ο
all όλος, -η, -ο
good καλος, καλη, καλο
big, large μεγάλος, -η, ο
small μικρός, -η, -ο
expensive ακριβος, -η, -ο

This is declined here along an appropriate noun:-

'ο ναύτης' (the sailor) Masculine
Nominative singular ο καλος ναύτης
Accusative singular τον καλο ναύτη
Nominative plural οι καλοί ναύτες
Accusative plural τους καλούς ναύτες

'η ταβέρνα' (the tavern) Feminine
Nominative singular ο καλη ταβέρνα
Accusative singular την καλη ταβέρνα
Nominative plural οι καλες ταβέρνες
Accusative plural τις καλες ταβέρνες

'το ξενοδοχείο' (the hotel) Neuter
Nominative singular το καλο ξενοδοχείο
Accusative singular το καλο ξενοδοχείο
Nominative plural τα καλα ξενοδοχεία
Accusative plural τα καλα ξενοδοχεία

Adjectives. Vowel stems

The commonest type of adjective with vowel stems has the endings ος, -α, -ο (masculine, feminine and neuter). Some common examples of Greek adjectives with vowel stems are :-

beautiful, nice ωραίος, α, ο
beautiful, nice ωραίος, ωραία, ωραίο
cold κρύος, α, ο

This is declined here along an appropriate noun:-

'ο ναύτης' (the sailor) Masculine
Nominative singular ο ωραίος ναύτης
Accusative singular τον ωραίό ναύτη
Nominative plural οι ωραίοί ναύτες
Accusative plural τους ωραίούς ναύτες

'η ταβέρνα' (the tavern) Feminine
Nominative singular ο ωραία ταβέρνα
Accusative singular την ωραία ταβέρνα
Nominative plural οι ωραίες ταβέρνες
Accusative plural τις ωραίες ταβέρνες

'το ξενοδοχείο' (the hotel) Neuter
Nominative singular το ωραίο ξενοδοχείο
Accusative singular το ωραίο ξενοδοχείο
Nominative plural τα ωραία ξενοδοχεία
Accusative plural τα ωραία ξενοδοχεία

Adjectives. Agreement examples

In Greek, adjectives agree with nouns in gender, number and case. A few examples in the nominative singular :-

the good hotel το καλο ξενοδοχείο
a good restaurant ένα καλο εστιατόριο
a good tavern μια καλη ταβέρνα

'ταβέρνα'is a feminine noun and so 'καλη' has a feminine ending. 'ξενοδοχείο' is a neuter noun and so 'καλο' has a neuter ending.

the tavern is very large η ταβέρνα είvαι πολύ μεγάλη

As 'η ταβέρνα' is feminine, 'μεγάλη' (large) has to use the feminine ending. The nominative is used after 'είvαι' (to be) so 'μεγάλη' has the nominative ending.


Sentences