... maxims and sayings.
Alter ego has the literal transation as 'other I' leading to the english 'alter ego' and is defined in the wiki.
An alter ego (Latin, "the other I") is a second self, which is believed to be distinct from a person's normal or original personality. A person who has an alter ego is said to lead a double life..
Fortuna caeca est. Fortune is blind. We can't control fate, and a common theme among proverbs. E.g. the Yiddish Der mentsh trakht un Got lakht.
Qui docet discit.He who teaches, learns. The best way to discover if you really know something, is to try and explain it to someone else.
In vino veritas. In wine lies truth. Often the truth comes out when people are drinking. Who hasn't had a couple of sherbets, and said something they regret.
Carpe diem. Sieze the day. Live for the moment. Don't worry about tomorrow. None of us live forever. Apparently said by the gladiators.
Vultus est index animi. The face is the index of the soul.
Index here has the meaning 'informer or discloser giving the literal meaning 'the face is the informer of the soul'.
An english equivalent is the eyes are the mirror to the soul or the eyes are the window to the soul.
Alea iacta est. The die is cast. Spoken by Caesar when he was about to cross the rubicon - from which the English 'to cross the rubicon' originates.
Crossing the rubicon is comitting yourself to some undertaking, normally hazardous in some way and which can't be undone.