Greek is spoken by the 12 million inhabitants of Greece and Cyprus.

It belongs to an independent branch of the indo-European language family. The history of the language can be traced from Proto-Greek, an assumed theoretical language from which all dialects of Greek are descended, via Mycenaean and Ancient Greek to the Demotic or Standard Modern Greek as is spoken in Greece today.

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Learning Greek

Greek is written using the Greek alphabet (of 24 letters descended from the Phoenician alphabet).

The words and phrases on SurfaceLanguages are written using the Greek script and also in a romanized version. This attempts to match the sounds of the Greek alphabet as closely as possible to those of the Roman alphabet.

The Greek alphabet is phonetic and straight-forward to learn. Learn the Greek alphabet.

The Greek language

Greek nouns have gender and can be masculine, feminine or neuter. The definite articles for masculine, feminine and neuter nouns are o, ή and τo respectively (in the nominative case). The man 'άντρας', the woman 'ή γυναίκα' are examples of masculine and feminine nouns (in the nominative). Nouns decline and can be either nominative, vocative, accusative or genitive. Definite and indefinite articles decline. (The indefinite article exists only in the singular).

Adjectives decline and vary according to the noun described. Many adjectives (in the nominative) end in -o if the word is masculine, -η if it is feminine and -o if it is neuter.


Phrases ordered by topic.
Learn the Greek alphabet
Basic Greek grammar
Learning Greek in three months
English words derived from the Greek
Greek words from the FSI Greek language course
BBC Greek